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Wh-Cleft Sentences

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 14 دی 1394-11:27 ق.ظ

Pseudo-cleft sentences

WHAT-CLAUSE + BE + PHRASE

Pseudo-cleft sentences (also called wh-clefts) are similar in function to cleft sentences, but they are formed with the pronoun what (= the thing(s) that/which). The emphasis in a pseudo-cleft sentence is on the phrase after the what-clause + be:

What you need is a good sleep.
What I didn't like was the end of the movie.
What changed his mind was a book he'd read.

If we want to refer to a person, we say The person/people who/that:

The people who/that I met were members of the delegation.

If we want to emphasise an action, the verb after be usually takes the form that corresponds to the form used in the what-clause: 

What you should do is write a letter to the manager.
What I need to do is get some rest. 
What they were doing was arguing about which train to take.
What I can do is call for a taxi.

In the following examples, the verb after be takes the form that the verb in the what-clause is normally followed by:

What I want is to sleep
What he can't stand is getting up early.

In the past simple and present perfect, we can use the following patterns: 

What I did in the end was (to) go home.
What I have done is (to) write a letter to the editor.


نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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IT-CLEFT SENTENCES

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 14 دی 1394-11:17 ق.ظ

از این ساختار جهت تاكید بر بخشی از جمله  (فاعل یا مفعول یا قید) استفاده كنید


IT-Cleft sentences

IT + BE + PHRASE + DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Cleft sentences (also called it-clefts) result from changing the normal sentence pattern to emphasise a particular piece of information. The emphasis in the resulting cleft sentence is on the phrase after it + be.

Look at the following example:

János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match in 1836.

We can transform this sentence in different ways depending on which part of it we want to bring into focus:

It was János Irinyi who/that invented the non-explosive match in 1836.
It was the non-explosive match which/that/(-) János Irinyi invented in 1836.
 
It was 1836 when János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match.
 

In the clauses that follow it + be + phrase, we can use the same relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why) that we normally use in defining relative clauses.

However, if we bring a whole adverbial phrase into focus, we use that:

It was in 1836 that János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match.

If we use a personal pronoun after it + be, it will be in the object form:

It was him who invented the non-explosive match in 1836.

It is also possible to expand the phrase in focus with a non-defining relative clause:

It was János Irinyi, who was a Hungarian chemist, that invented the non-explosive match in 1836.



نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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COMPLEX SENTENCES

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:یکشنبه 6 دی 1394-09:49 ق.ظ

Complex Sentences

Understanding complex sentences and knowing how to write them is crucial for IELTS.

The examiner will not award you above a band 5 for 'grammatical range and accuracy' if you cannot write them or if you have a very limited ability to write them.

This is the marking criteria for a band 6 for grammar:

  • Uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms
  • Makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication

So you must have a mix of complex sentence forms, though some errors in them are acceptable.

If, for example, you learned a couple of complex structures and used the same ones throughout your essay, this would not demonstrate a 'mix'.

For the higher band scores, you will need to show a greater range and more accuracy.

In order to understand a complex sentence, you need to understand independent and dependent clauses (look at this previous lesson on clauses if you are unsure what they are).

 

What are independent and dependent clauses?

A clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. This is adependent clause:

...because it was raining so hard.

If something or someone is 'dependent' then it needs or relies on something else for aid, support, life etc.

For example, a baby is dependent on its mother. Without the mother the baby cannot survive.

In a similar way, a dependent clause cannot 'survive' on its own. It relies on something else. The clause above "....because it was raining so hard" cannot be used on its own as a sentence because it does not make sense.

In order to function, it needs an independent clause. An independent clause can function on its own as a sentence:

I took my umbrella.

This has meaning so is ok on its own. It makes a simple sentence.

If we now join this independent clause with the dependent clause, we have a complex sentence that has meaning:

I took my umbrella because it was raining so hard.

 

Types of complex sentence

Complex sentences have three types:

  1. Adverbial Clauses
  2. Relative Clauses
  3. Noun Clauses


نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:یکشنبه 6 دی 1394-09:42 ق.ظ

Adverbial Clauses

In this lesson we will look in more detail at adverbial clauses.

These clauses are a type of complex sentence, so it is essential that you are able to use them in your writing and speaking if you want to achieve a good band score.

The examiner will be monitoring your speaking and writing closely to assess how well you know them.

In the table below you can see the most common types of adverbs used to make adverbial clauses.

You can also see what they are used for and some example sentences.

 

Types of Adverbial Clause

Time Clauses

In reference to a period of time or another event

He arrived before I did.

After I have finished studying, I intend to work abroad.

As the climate gets hotter, sea levels will rise.

I will keep learning English for as long as it is necessary.

While I am studying, I usually listen to the radio.

Rates of obesity increase when too much junk food is eaten.

Since I started going to fitness, I have lost 5 kilos.

I will keep learning English until I am upper intermediate.

Conditional Clauses

Expressing a hypothesis or condition, real or imagined

If we clone humans, it may have terrible consequences.

What would you buy if you won the lottery?

Our food will not be safe unless GM crops are banned.

Reason Clauses

To explain why

My English is not improving because I am not studying enough.

Since the government cut spending, poverty has increased.

Pollution is increasing as there are too many cars.

Purpose Clauses

To show the purpose of doing something

I am studying IELTS in order to attend university abroad.

He went to the gym so that he could lose weight.

Concession Clauses

To show contrast between two statements, or surprise.

Although e-readers are popular, most people still prefer books.

The Minister wants to increase taxes though his party disagrees.

Even though I studied every day, I didn't get the score I needed (surprising)

Internet usage increased, while phone usage decreased.*

Whereas you have a lot of time to study, I do not.*

Place

To talk about location of position

Wherever he goes, I will go.

I am not sure where I put my pen.

 



نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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ADVERBS POSITIONS مكان قیدها در جمله

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:چهارشنبه 20 شهریور 1392-10:41 ق.ظ

Types of adverbs and their positions



Different types of adverbs go in different places

type

position

example

manner

They usually go in end position.

They sometimes go in mid position if the adverb is not the most important part of the clause or if the object is very long.

She ate quickly.

She quickly ate her dinner and ran out.

place

They usually go in end position.

They sometimes go in front position, especially in writing.

Can you come over here?

We’ll be at that table there.

Here she sat.

Outside, there was a small pond.

time

They usually go in end position.

They sometimes go in front position especially if we want to emphasise the adverb.

I’m flying to Edinburgh tomorrow.

Today, I’m going to clean the house.

duration

They usually go in end position.

I’m not staying long.

frequency

They usually go in mid position.

They sometimes go in front position.

They can also go in end position.

Always, ever and never do not usually go in front position.

We often have friends to stay.

I usually get up late on weekends.

I could never swim fast.

Sometimes she wore a woolen hat.

We don’t see them very often.

Not: Never I could swim fast.

degree

Really, very, quite usually go in mid position.

A lot and a bit usually go in end position.

I really like those pink flowers.

We go to Ireland a lot.

I’d just like to change things a bit.

focusing

They usually go in mid position.

He simply walked out without saying a word.

certainty or obligation

Some go in mid position: probably, possibly, certainly.

Others go in front position: maybe, perhaps or in end positions after a comma.

It’ll probably rain.

Maybe Nick will know the answer.

Can I get you a drink, or something to eat, perhaps?

viewpoint

They usually go outside the clause, often at the beginning.

They can sometimes go in mid position, especially in formal writing.

Personally, I’d rather not go out.

This must, frankly, be the craziest idea anyone has ever had.

evaluative

They usually go outside the clause, often at the beginning.

They can sometimes go in mid position.

In informal speaking they can go in end position.

Unfortunately, I forgot my swimming costume so I had to sit on the side and watch.

We have stupidly forgotten the tickets.

They missed the bus, apparently.

 





نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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UNCOUNT NOUNS

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:چهارشنبه 20 شهریور 1392-09:36 ق.ظ

 UNCOUNT NOUNS


Some nouns in English are uncount nouns.

We do not use uncount nouns in the plural and we do not use them with the indefinite article, a/an.

We ate a lot of foods > We ate a lot of food
We bought some new furnitures > We bought some new furniture
That’s a useful information > That’s useful information

We can use some quantifiers with uncount nouns:

He gave me some useful advice.
They gave us a lot of information.

Uncount nouns often refer to:

  • Substances: food; water; wine; salt; bread; iron
  • Human feelings or qualities: anger; cruelty; happiness; honesty; pride;
  • Activities: help; sleep; travel; work
  • Abstract ideas: beauty; death; fun; life

 Common uncount nouns

There are some common nouns in English, like accommodation, which are uncount nouns even though they have plurals in other languages:

advicebaggageequipmentfurniturehomeworkinformation
knowledgeluggagemachinerymoneynewstraffic

Let me give you some advice.
How much luggage have you got?

If we want to make these things countable, we use expressions like:

a piece of...pieces of...a bit of...bits of...an item of...items of...

Let me give you a piece of advice.
That’s a useful piece of equipment.
We bought a few bits of furniture for the new apartment.
She had six separate items of luggage.

but we do not use accommodation, money and traffic in this way.



ادامه مطلب

نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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